Many researchers are currently present to bring the results of research on language teaching methodologies that are aplicable to teaching vocabulary. They are Lozanov (1979), Harmer (2001), Asher (1969), William (1993), and Wolfe (1982). All these methods were created to answer the question of how to teach vocabulary for learners. In general, these methods are not much different. They explain how to improve vocabulary acquisition, how to provide an effective method, and how the process teaching vocabulary more effectively.
These researchers continued to give his views on the proper method for teaching vocabulary, namely Total Physical Response (TPR) Method and Suggestopedia Method. The Total Physical Response (TPR) Method became popular in the 1970s and attracted the attention or allegiance of some teachers, but it has not received generalized support from mainstream educators. Several attempts made to answer this mainstream, finally discovered the method in accordance with the human brain in language teaching, namely the Suggestopedia. This paper discusses these methods (total physical response and suggestopedia) and finds the result which one the appropriate method to be applied for teaching vocabulary. The writer has chosen this tittle becuase a lot of problems in teaching vocabulary, and using ICT system is the better way to solve this problem.
The paper aims to know the influences of optimizing ICT System in vocabulary teaching.
3.1 TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR)
The Total Physical Response (TPR) relies on the assumption that when learning a second or additional language, language is internalized through a process of codebreaking similar to first language development and that the process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production.
According to Asher (1969), TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth – including the sign language of the deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language. It looks to the way that children learn their native language.Communication between parents and their children combines both verbal and physical aspects. The child responds physically to the speech of their parent. The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech of the parent. For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak. It is during this period that the internalization and code breaking occurs. After this stage the child is able to reproduce the language spontaneously. With TPR the language teacher tries to mimic this process in class.
In addition, William (1993) TPR is primarily intended for ESL/EAL teachers, although the method is used in teaching other languages as well. TPR may also be a useful alternative teaching strategy for students with dyslexia or related learning disabilities, who typically experience difficulty learning foreign languages with traditional classroom instruction.
Wolfe (1982) remarked that several studies have found that with the implementation of several educational institutions TPR method claimed to get significance results that teaching vocabulary through TPR method drastically increased almost 65%.
In conclusion, researchers from a variety of opinion about the TPR, and the findings of research that can be inferred using this method can provide a positive impact for the development of teaching vocabulary. This can be achieved if teachers know the procedures and application techniques.
Although this method have received appreciation from various parties, but still there are parties that give a negative assessment of this method, they believe that without the use of this method is also able to increase the acquisition of learners’ vocabulary. They also believe that success in increasing vocabulary acquisition depends on the place setting and relaxation as well as the human brain oriented. The opinions of linguists and the researcher will be reviewed in subsequent discussion.
3.2 SUGGESTOPEDIA METHOD
Suggestopedia promised great results if we use our brain power and inner capacities. Lozanov (1979) believed that we are capable of learning much more than we think. Drawing upon Soviet psychological research on yoga and extrasensory perception, he came up with a method for learning that used relaxation as a means of retaining new knowledge and material. It stands to reason that music played a pivotal role in his method. Lozanov and his followers tried to present vocabulary, readings, role-plays and drama with classical music in the background and students sitting in comfortable seats. In this way, students became “suggestible.”
Of course, suggestopedia offered valuable insights into the “superlearning” powers of our brain but it was demolished on several fronts. For instance, what happens if our classrooms are bereft of such amenities as comfortable seats and Compact Disk players? Certainly, this method is insightful and constructive and can be practised from time to time, without necessarily having to adhere to all its premises. A relaxed mind is an open mind and it can help a student to feel more confident and, in a sense, pliable.
In addition, Harmer (2001) states that the intended purpose of Suggestopedia was to enhance learning by lowering the affective filter of learners. Harmer opinion assumes that this method is to touch the other side that is rarely applied by experts in language teaching, namely the affective side. This side effect is very remarkable by Harmer in the application of teaching vocabulary. Students are able to respond directly, they are also able to provide the increasing result of vocabulary acquisition by bringing them to the human brain oriented.
Similarly, Richards (2001) states that Suggestopedia has been called a “pseudo-science”. It strongly depends on the trust that students develop towards the method by simply believing that it works. Lozanov himself admits that Suggestopedia can be compared to a placebo. He argues, however, that placebos are indeed effective. Another point of criticism is brought forward by Baur who claims that the students only receive input by listening, reading and musical-emotional backing, while other important factors of language acquisition are being neglected. Furthermore, several other features of the method, like the ‘nonconscious’ acquisition of language, or bringing the learner into a child-like state are questioned by critics.
According to Lozanov (1979) that many results proved by some researcher in various countries, for example in Brazil, there is a teacher who developed a whole teacher training course to apply and use Suggestopedia using traditional books. He teaches how to adapt and create a new Suggestopedic book to be used in Suggestopedic classes. The training also teaches the teachers how to conduct an intensive course in English or in any other foreign language using the newest development of Suggestopedia.
Based on information obtained from expert opinions on the suggestopedia that the conclusion can be drawn is suggestopedia an appropriate method used for teaching vocabulary because this method provides a greater portion of the human brain oriented. In other hand, Lozanov claims that the effect of the method is not only in language learning, but also in producing favorable side effects on health, the social and psychological relations, and the subsequent success in other subjects.
- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
To conclude, the writer provides the opinion about the appropriate method that is aplicable for teaching vocabulary today is suggestopedia method. This method is recommended to be adopted in the practice of teaching vocabulary.
There are several reasons for expressing this opinion. First, this method is presented with a systematic procedure starting from the preparation, presentation, elaboration and evaluation. This allows anyone who wants to apply this method in teaching vocabulary can apply it by following existing procedures. Second, the learners prefer learning that attract the type in accordance with his wishes and in accordance with what the brain can they receive, and this method can meet the needs of learners today. Third, this method can be applied anytime and anywhere with the simple equipment and facilities, provided that teachers are willing and able to master the procedures.
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